Classification of Vascular Anomalies


Vascular Anomalies Include Vascular Tumors & Vascular Malformations.

Vascular Anomalies are comprised of tumors and malformations. These lesions result from abnormally developed blood vessels. The abnormalities may occur in the arteries, veins, capillaries or lymphatic vessels. The classification of vascular anomalies is complex. A listing of some of the different types of anomalies is below. 

 Vascular Tumors

  • Benign vascular tumors- Infantile Hemangioma (IH), Congenital Hemangioma (CH), Tufted Angioma, Spindle Cell Angioma, Epithelioid Hemangioma, Pyogenic Granuloma, other
  • Locally aggressive or borderine vascular tumors- Kaposiform hemangiomaendothelioma (KHE), retiform hemangioendothelioma, Papilary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA), Kaposi Sarcoma, others
  • Malignant vascular tumors- Angiosarcoma, Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, others
Infantile Hemangioma is the most common benign vascular tumor of infancy and children.  It presents in a pattern of either focal, multifocal, segmental or indeterminate.  There are different types of infantile hemangioma: superficial, deep, mixed (superficial + deep), reticular/abortive/minimal growth and others.  Infantile Hemangioma may be associated with other lesions.
PHACE Syndrome is an association of other anomalies with an infantile hemangioma.  P-posterior fossa malformations, H- hemangioma, A- araterial anomalies, C- cardiovascualr anomalies, E- eye anomalies, sternal clefting and or supraumbilical raphe.
Lumbar Sacral Pelvis Syndrome is an association of lower body hemangioma, urogenical anomalies, ulceration, myelopathy, bony deformities, anorectal malformations, arterial anomalies and renal anomalies.

Vascular Malformations – Include simple and combined vascular malformations.  Some are named of major vessels and others are associated with other anomalies.

  • Simple Vascular Malformations:
  • Capillary Malformations
  • Venous Malformations
  • Arteriovenous Malformations
  • Lymphatic Malformations
  • Arteriovenous Fistula
  • Combined Vascular Malformations:
  • Capillary-Venous Malformation
  • Capillary Lymphatic Malformation
  • Capillary Arteriovenous Malformation
  • Lymphatic Venous Malformation
  • Capillary Lymphatic Venous Malformation
  • More
  • Named for Major Vessels
  • Affect the lymphatic vessels
  • Affect the veins
  • Affect the arteries
  • Anomalies of origin, course, number, length, diameter, valves, communication (AVF), persistence (of embryonal vessel)
  • Associated with other Anomalies
  • Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome
  • Parkes Weber Syndrome
  • Servelle Martorell Syndrome
  • Sturge Weber Syndrome
  • Maffucci Syndrome
  • Cloves Syndrome
  • Proteus Syndrome
  • Bannayan Riley Ruvalcaba sd
  • more
  • Unclassified Anomalies


Classification of Vascular Anomalies was first published by Dr. John Mulliken in 1981, it has recently been revised at the 2014 meeting of ISSVA in Melbourne Australia.  The information above is from this newly revised classification. 

NOVA provides this information as a resource.  It is not intended to engage in the practice of medicine or to replace the physician.  NOVA does not claim to have medical knowledge.  NOVA does not endorse any particular physician, treating facility or treatment protocol.  In all cases NOVA, the NOVA Board of Directors and associates recommends that you seek the opinion of a physician experienced in the diagnosis and treatment of hemangioma and vascular malformations. Contact NOVA at

rev. 9/2/2020

NOVA is a 501c3a organization. All donations are tax deductible. NOVA was originally founded as Hemangioma Newsline.
Contact Web Master:     PO Box 38216 Greensboro, NC 27438-8216

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify.